Science…

Are you saying Prince would come back to life?
We could replay the 99 prelim, select Lucas in the 22 and start trying in Q1 rather than Q3?

And just in general, has science been scientifically proven to exist?

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My (albeit very basic, and probably too simplistic) understanding was all it would impact is time and date, not location, and most modern devices were designed with it in mind (using 13 bits not 10, delaying it for another 150 years or so).

True it effected time only.
However, the way time is integrated into many algorithms these days, a simple unhandled exception eg, divide by zero error might cause a thread to dump and a cascade of events causing an accident.

But yes it was reasonably well handled well by the industry, in that well ahead of time any legacy devices that could not be updated were red flagged and if a receivers firmware could be updated the new versions were distributed well ahead of April 6th 2019

Our company has many devices in defence systems worldwide but we missed the roll over date because our supplier did not inform us . Only a handful of devices were adversely effected, only the ones using message formats with GPS time in them, and even that only caused an error on the log files.

I have been using my old TomTom GPS while in Europe. Could use my iPhone but TomTom costs nothing in download etc.

I found last week that the time has just reset to 12:00:00 am, and no matter what I do it just reverts to this every time. Is this the issue you are talking about or is my TomTom farked ?

I heard that Gil came out and thanked the maggots for their practical judgement in saying that science does not exist. (At least in context of Newton’s Laws, when applied by large primates to goal posts).

Extracting primitive DNA. Amazing

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Crazy BIG science stuff to detect a supernova neutrino- it’s a good read with cool photos.

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Bitcoin causing carbon dioxide emissions comparable to Las Vegas or Hamburg

Hardware and IP addresses analyzed to assess the carbon footprint of the cryptocurrency

Date:

June 13, 2019

Source:

Technical University of Munich (TUM)

The use of Bitcoin causes around 22 megatons in CO2 emissions annually – comparable to the total emissions of cities such as Hamburg or Las Vegas. That is the conclusion of the most detailed analysis to date of the cryptocurrency’s carbon footprint. For their study, an interdisciplinary team of researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) analyzed such data as the IPO filings of hardware manufacturers and the IP addresses of Bitcoin “miners.”

Although Bitcoin is a virtual currency, the energy consumption associated with its use is very real. For a Bitcoin transfer to be executed and validated, a mathematical puzzle must be solved by an arbitrary computer in the global Bitcoin network. The network, which anyone can join, rewards the puzzle solvers in Bitcoin. The computing capacity used in this process – known as Bitcoin mining – has increased rapidly in recent years. Statistics show that it quadrupled in 2018 alone.

Consequently, the Bitcoin boom raises the question of whether the cryptocurrency is imposing an additional burden on the climate. Several studies have attempted to quantify the CO2 emissions caused by Bitcoin mining. “These studies are based on a number of approximations, however,” says Christian Stoll, who conducts research at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

"Detective work" to track down the power consumption

Therefore, a team of management sciences and informatics researchers at TUM has carried out the most detailed calculation of the carbon footprint of the Bitcoin system to date. Working like detectives, they proceeded step by step to gather conclusive data.

The team began by calculating the power consumption of the network. This depends primarily on the hardware used for Bitcoin mining. “Today special systems are used, known as ASIC-based miners,” explains Stoll. In 2018 the three manufacturers who control the ASIC miner market planned IPOs. The team used the mandatory IPO filings to calculate the market shares of the companies’ respective products. The study also had to consider whether the mining was being done by someone running just one miner at home or in one of the large-scale “farms” set up in recent years by professional operators. “In those operations, extra energy is needed just for the cooling of the data center,” says Stoll. To investigate the orders of magnitude involved, the team used statistics released by a public pool of different miners showing the computing power of its members.

68 percent of computing power located in Asia

The researchers determined the annual electricity consumption by Bitcoin, as of November 2018, to be about 46 TWh. And how much CO2 is emitted when this energy is generated? Here, too, the research team wanted to go beyond mere estimates. The key question, therefore: Where are the miners located?

Once again, live tracking data from the mining pools provided the decisive information. “In these groups, miners combine their computing power in order to get a quicker turn in the reward for solving puzzles – similar to people in lottery pools,” explains Stoll. The IP addresses in the statistics published by the two biggest pools showed that miners tend to join pools in or near their home countries. Based on these data, the team was able to localize 68 percent of the Bitcoin network computing power in Asian countries, 17 percent in European countries, and 15 percent in North America. The researchers cross-checked this conclusion against the results of another method by localizing the IP addresses of individual miners using an internet of things search engine. They then combined their results with statistics on the carbon intensity of power generation in the various countries.

“Linking large-scale mining operations to renewable energy production”

The conclusion of the study: The Bitcoin system has a carbon footprint of between 22 and 22.9 megatons per year. That is comparable to the footprint of such cities as Hamburg, Vienna or Las Vegas.

“Naturally there are bigger factors contributing to climate change. However, the carbon footprint is big enough to make it worth discussing the possibility of regulating cryptocurrency mining in regions where power generation is especially carbon-intensive,” says Christian Stoll. “To improve the ecological balance, one possibility might be to link more mining farms to additional renewable generating capacity.”

Story Source:

Materials provided by Technical University of Munich (TUM) . Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference :

  1. Christian Stoll, Lena Klaaßen, Ulrich Gallersdörfer. The Carbon Footprint of Bitcoin . Joule , 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.joule.2019.05.012
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AI Trained on Old Scientific Papers Makes Discoveries Humans Missed

Scientists used machine learning to reveal new scientific knowledge hidden in old research papers. SHARE TWEET

Madeleine Gregory


Shutterstock

Using just the language in millions of old scientific papers, a machine learning algorithm was able to make completely new scientific discoveries.

In a study published in Nature on July 3, researchers from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory used an algorithm called Word2Vec sift through scientific papers for connections humans had missed. Their algorithm then spit out predictions for possible thermoelectric materials, which convert heat to energy and are used in many heating and cooling applications.

The algorithm didn’t know the definition of thermoelectric, though. It received no training in materials science. Using only word associations, the algorithm was able to provide candidates for future thermoelectric materials, some of which may be better than those we currently use.

“It can read any paper on material science, so can make connections that no scientists could,” researcher Anubhav Jain said. “Sometimes it does what a researcher would do; other times it makes these cross-discipline associations.”

To train the algorithm, the researchers assessed the language in 3.3 million abstracts related to material science, ending up with a vocabulary of about 500,000 words. They fed the abstracts to Word2vec, which used machine learning to analyze relationships between words.

“The way that this Word2vec algorithm works is that you train a neural network model to remove each word and predict what the words next to it will be,” Jain said. “By training a neural network on a word, you get representations of words that can actually confer knowledge.”

Using just the words found in scientific abstracts, the algorithm was able to understand concepts such as the periodic table and the chemical structure of molecules. The algorithm linked words that were found close together, creating vectors of related words that helped define concepts. In some cases, words were linked to thermoelectric concepts but had never been written about as thermoelectric in any abstract they surveyed. This gap in knowledge is hard to catch with a human eye, but easy for an algorithm to spot.

After showing its capacity to predict future materials, researchers took their work back in time, virtually. They scrapped recent data and tested the algorithm on old papers, seeing if it could predict scientific discoveries before they happened. Once again, the algorithm worked.

In one experiment, researchers analyzed only papers published before 2009 and were able to predict one of the best modern-day thermoelectric materials four years before it was discovered in 2012.

This new application of machine learning goes beyond materials science. Because it’s not trained on a specific scientific dataset, you could easily apply it to other disciplines, retraining it on literature of whatever subject you wanted. Vahe Tshitoyan, the lead author on the study, says other researchers have already reached out, wanting to learn more.

“This algorithm is unsupervised and it builds its own connections,” Tshitoyan said. “You could use this for things like medical research or drug discovery. The information is out there. We just haven’t made these connections yet because you can’t read every article.”

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Thats why premined crypto coins should be the choice eg XRP

Wow, great story… machine learning can help narrow down an area to focus research in.

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Skynet, is just a certain bunch of 1’s and Zero’s away.

Prepare yourselves!

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Hmmm… I challenge those boffins to use Word2Vec to make a new discovery from the last zillion words in Blitz.

we have covered it all.

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in case you wondered how they compared

this is a good story

Prospectors’ mystery rock was no nugget, but something much rarer

Liam MannixJuly 17, 2019 — 12.49am

Dave Hole had tried everything. Rock saw. Drill. They all just bounced off. The damn rock would not crack. This was his last shot.

He gripped the sledgehammer with two hands, raised it above his head, and brought it down as hard as he could. CLANGGG.

Nothing. Not even a scratch. “What the hell is this thing?”, Mr Hole thought to himself.

The answer, it turned out, was something not of this Earth.

He had come across the large reddish rock while hunting for gold near Maryborough, where he lives, in 2015. It was extremely heavy, far heavier than it looked, so Mr Hole thought there had to be a nugget inside.

He was wrong. This was no nugget. It contained something much rarer than gold: metal raindrops from the dawn of our solar system.

Dr Bill Burch, senior curator emeritus and Dermot Henry, head of sciences at Museums Victoria.
Dr Bill Burch, senior curator emeritus and Dermot Henry, head of sciences at Museums Victoria.Sim Schluter

People bring rocks to Melbourne Museum all the time, hoping they are meteorites. It is the job of museum geologists Dermot Henry and Bill Birch to gently let them down. Of the thousands of rocks Mr Henry has examined in his 37 years at the museum, only two have been meteorites.

But the moment Mr Hole brought his rock in, packed inside a backpack, they started to get very excited.

“It had this sculpted, dimpled look to it,” Mr Henry recalled. “That’s formed when they come through the atmosphere, they are melting on the outside, and the atmosphere sculpts them.”

The moment he lifted it, Dr Birch knew. “If you saw a rock on earth like this, and you picked it up, it shouldn’t be that heavy.”

Testing quickly confirmed their suspicions. Mr Hole’s rock was a 4.6 billion-year-old meteorite.

The rock – now known as the Maryborough meteorite – is so heavy because, unlike standard Earth rocks, it is filled with very dense forms of iron and nickel.

Mr Henry used a super-hard diamond saw to slice the edge off, revealing a cross-section of little silver raindrops.

These were once droplets of silicate minerals that crystallised from the super-hot cloud of gas that formed our solar system. “You’re looking right back to the formation of the solar system here,” says Mr Henry.

It is called an “H5 chondrite”, which is similar to the rocks the Earth was built from.

About 4.6 billion years ago our solar system consisted of lumps of this chondrite circling the sun. Gravity slowly clumped those rocks together to make Earth and the other rocky planets.

Some lumps of chondrite were left over. Most of them now orbit in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.

Occasionally, two asteroids in the belt will crash into each other, sending shards of rock flying. That’s how the Maryborough meteorite would have started its life – as a shard sent racing toward Earth.

After travelling for years through space, it entered the Earth’s atmosphere. Friction would have superheated the rock and turned its surface red and molten. It would have streaked across the sky before landing with a thud in the dense scrub where, years later, Mr Hole found it.

The lack of weathering on the rock suggests it has been on Earth for less than 200 years, says Mr Henry. That means someone probably saw it fall. There are records in local newspapers of fireballs streaking across the sky above Maryborough, including one from The Age in June 1951.

The meteorite will go on display at Melbourne Museum on August 11 during National Science Week. Mr Hole plans to travel down to take a look at the rock, which travelled for 4.6 billion years to wind up on his doorstep.

“It was just pot luck, mate. A billion to one – bigger, a trillion to one,” he marvels. “Got more chance of being struck by lightning twice.”

The moment he lifted it, Dr Birch knew. “If you saw a rock on earth like this, and you picked it up, it shouldn’t be that heavy.”
The moment he lifted it, Dr Birch knew. “If you saw a rock on earth like this, and you picked it up, it shouldn’t be that heavy.”Simon Schluter

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Interesting concept.

Robotic tail built by Japanese researchers in bid to keep ageing population mobile

Posted about 2 hours ago

VIDEO: RESEARCHERS SAY THE ROBOTIC TAIL COULD HELP UNSTEADY ELDERLY PEOPLE KEEP THEIR BALANCE. (ABC NEWS)

RELATED STORY: How lizard tails could help design off-road robots for search-and-rescue missions

Millions of years after the ancestors of humans evolved to lose their tails, a research team at Japan’s Keio University have built a robotic one they say could help unsteady elderly people keep their balance.

Key points:

  • The grey 1m device mimics tails such as those of cheetahs and other animals
  • The robotic tail uses four artificial muscles and compressed air to move in eight directions
  • It will remain in the lab for now as researchers look for ways to make it more flexible

Dubbed Arque, the grey 1-metre device mimics tails such as those of cheetahs and other animals used to keep their balance while running and climbing, according to the Keio team.

“The tail keeps balance like a pendulum,” said Junichi Nabeshima, a graduate student and researcher at the university’s Embodied Media Project, displaying the robotic tail attached to his waist with a harness.

“When a human tilts their body one way, the tail moves in the opposite direction.”

As Japan ages, it is leading the industrial world in seeking ways to keep its greying population mobile and productive through technical solutions.

The robotic tail, which uses four artificial muscles and compressed air to move in eight directions, will remain in the lab for now, however, as researchers look for ways to make it more flexible, Mr Nabeshima said.

An image of a white, black and orange robotic tail built by Japanese researchers. PHOTO: The robotic tail uses artificial muscles and compressed air to move. (Supplied)

Apart from helping the elderly get around, the team are also looking at industrial applications for the artificial appendage, such as a balance aid for warehouse workers carrying heavy loads.

“I think it would be nice to incorporate this further-developed prosthetic tail into daily life, when one seeks a little more help balancing,” Mr Nabeshima said.

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Yay, science.

We have just purchased on of these Microsoft HoloLens 2; link below, I will post on it once we get it and see what fun it is.

https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/hololens/hardware

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About 50% of previous Lasker winners have won the Nobel Prize.

Jacques Miller is a very famous immunologist in Melbourne.

Watch this space in October…

B and T cells—the organizing principle of the adaptive immune system

2019 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award

For their discovery of the two distinct classes of lymphocytes, B and T cells – a monumental achievement that provided the organizing principle of the adaptive immune system and launched the course of modern immunology

The 2019 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award honors two scientists for discoveries that have launched the course of modern immunology. Max D. Cooper (Emory University School of Medicine) and Jacques Miller (Emeritus, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research) identified two distinct classes of lymphocytes, B and T cells, a monumental achievement that provided the organizing principle of the adaptive immune system. This pioneering work has fueled a tremendous number of advances in basic and medical science, several of which have received previous recognition by Lasker Awards and Nobel Prizes, including those associated with monoclonal antibodies, generation of antibody diversity, MHC restriction for immune defense, antigen processing by dendritic cells, and checkpoint inhibition therapy for cancer.

When Miller began his research—around 1960—scientists had uncovered some features of the adaptive immune system, which protects our bodies from microbial invaders, underlies immunological memory, and distinguishes self from foreign tissue. They knew that antibodies, soluble proteins whose quantities surge after infection, perform jobs that differ from tasks that rely on live, intact cells such as rejection of transplanted grafts.

Of course, ■■■■■■ WEHI again!

Given the paucity of research funding within Australia, their output is phenomenal.